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The pelvic floor or pelvic diaphragm is a sheet of muscles that support pelvic organs, e. Damage to the pelvic floor, as may occur during childbirth, can lead to development of incontinence andor prolapse. rectocele, cystocele, rectal intussusception, and prolapse are the other possible disorders linked to pelvic floor dysfunction. anatomy is described for the different colonic segments, rectal ampulla, upper and lower anal canal, corpus cavernosum recti, proctodeal glands, anal sphincter complex, and pelvic floor muscles. The anatomic structures mediating anal continence are highlighted. 1 sacral nerves (a s2, b s3, c s4), 2 pudendal nerve, 3 levatory nerves, 4 inferior rectal nerves, 5 somatic innervation of the pelvic floor and external anal sphincter, 6 sympathetic trunk, 7 lumbar splanchnic nerves, 8 grey communicans nerve, 9 superior hypogastric plexus, 10 hypogastric nerves, 11 sacral splanchnic nerves, 12 inferior hypogastric plexus, 13 pelvic splanchnic nerves. Recent advances in rectal surgery include total mesorectal excision and preservation of the autonomic pelvic nerves, so that colorectal surgeons have to get some information on the embryology of the rectum, on the complex anatomy of the pelvic floor and on the distribution of lymphatic nodes. after a brief technical description of mri, the anatomy of anal sphincter, rectum and pelvic floor is described. Anorectum and pelvic floor have multiple interconnections by fascia and ligaments as well as multiple indirect connections to the bony pelvis. Other structures as perineal body and a fibro-elastic network add to this support. Pmid 19647683 indexed for medline publication types review mesh terms. The pelvic floor is a dome-shaped striated muscular sheet that encloses the bladder, uterus, and rectum, and, together with the anal sphincters, has an important role in regulating storage and.