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Nigro protocol is the preoperative use of chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin and medical radiation for squamous cell carcinomas of the anal canal. Success of the preoperative regimen changed the paradigm of anal cancer treatment from surgical to non-surgical and was the advent of definitive chemoradiation (omitting surgery) being accepted as a standard-of-care for anal squamous. anal cancer treatment protocols are provided below, including those for limited localized disease, metastatic disease, salvage therapy, and additional special considerations. Limited localized disease stage i-iii (any t, any n, m0) current primary recommendations for non-metastatic anal cancer include concurrent chemotherapy and radiation t. Study title d933rc00001- niagara-a phase iii randomized, open-label, multi-center, global study to determine the efficacy and safety of durvalumab in combination with gemcitabine & cisplatin for neoadjuvant treatment followed by durvalumab alone for adjuvant treatment in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (niagara). The second uk anal cancer trial (act ii), as reported at the american society of clinical oncology 2009 meeting, addressed the issues in the rtog study design and directly evaluated the role of mitomycin vs cisplatin in the neoadjuvant chemoradiation of anal cancer. 22 a total of 940 patients (t14) were randomized to receive 5-fu plus cisplatin with radiation or 5-fu plus mitomycin with. Although radiation therapy to the pelvis has been a standard and important part of treatment for rectal cancer and has been shown to decrease the risk of the cancer coming back in the same area in the pelvis, some patients experience undesirable side effects from the radiation and there have been important advances in chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation which may be of benefit. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection that can cause serious health problems if it is not treated. Syphilis is divided into stages (primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary), and there are different signs and symptoms associated with each stage. Muti p, bradlow h, micheli a, krogh v, freudenheim jl, schünemann hj, stanulla m, yang j, sepkovic dw, trevisan m, berrino f. Estrogen metabolism and risk of breast cancer a prospective study of the 216alpha-hydroxyestrone ratio in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. It can be transmitted through vaginal, anal or oral sex, even if there are no symptoms. The bacteria that cause gonorrhea have developed resistance to many antibiotics. Untreated, it can lead to infertility or pass from mother to infant during birth. It can be prevented through safer sex practices such as condom use and is treated with antibiotics. prostate cancer treatments vary from newer techniques like cryotherapy, to surgery, hormone therapy and more. Screening is the best way of finding colorectal cancer early. Most people ages 50 to 74 are at average risk of getting colorectal cancer, meaning they do not have a first-degree relative (parent, brother, sister or child) who has been diagnosed with colorectal cancer. It is recommended that people at average risk get screened with the fecal immunochemical test (fit) every 2 years.